Category: Culinary classes

Transfer Post: Cheese Whiz

I cannot imagine that when my parents kicked me out and sent me off to college that the thought ever crossed their mind that one of my teachers would try and turn me into Cheese Whiz.  Yet my Foundations class teacher is trying to do just that … and not only to me, but to all my classmates as well.  If you are concerned, I should perhaps give the following disclaimer.  My Culinary Arts 102 teacher does not approve of processed cheese and she appears to be trying to turn us into cheese whizzes, not Cheese Whiz.   If you are not concerned, as I strongly suspect you were not (why do people refuse to take me seriously these days?),  I hope you were at least slightly amused by my punning.   Next Foundations class test is on  Friday the 19th and covers chapters 7, 9 and 10 of On Cooking.  Flavors and Flavorings, Mise en Place, and Cooking Methods.   The test after that, however, is on chapters 8 and 21.  Chapter 8 discusses dairy products, while chapter 21 is titled ‘Eggs and Breakfast’.   An amusing result of product association is that on the double page, full color, picture and title page to chapter eight includes eight whole eggs and one that has been cracked open.  This is funny, once you realize that eggs are nowhere mentioned in the chapter.  It becomes even more humorous, when you turn to chapter 21 and see three lonely whole eggs and one scrambled egg on the title page.   If the chapter on Dairy Products does not mention eggs, what does it mention?  Well, the first two pages are on milk with an additional half page on cream.  Half a page on cultured products such as yogurt, a page on butter and margarine and then twelve pages on cheeses.  Types of cheese, colors of cheese, hardness of cheese, recipes for making cheese, recipes for using cheese.  What wines should you serve with cheese?  The answers are here.  How should you store cheese?  Cut cheese?  Serve cheese?  I thought I knew a decent amount about types of cheese, after reading the chapter on my own.  Then I thought I knew a good deal about types of cheese, after reading through the cheese section of the chapter in class and discussing it as a group.  We watched a video for cheese-vendors and I knew even more about cheese afterward.  I learned which cheeses various countries were famous for.  I learned a new classification to add to the five I had discovered in my textbook.   Very well.  I had been educated on cheese.  So, I went into class this morning and we took a non-graded quiz on chapter 10, which you may recall is written on ‘Cooking Methods’.  The quiz took up about 45 minutes and the remainder of the video, which the teacher had planned on us watching, turned out to be nonexistent.  Then, the teacher pulled out her book on cheese and started reading aloud and chalking strange words up on the two blackboards.  Things like Taleggio,  Brick, and Cambozola appeared, stayed, and were erased to make room for Chabchou, Mizithra, and Explorateur.  I now have my notes to study in addition to the textbook pages.  In all, 22 pages on cheeses.

Transfer Post: French Lessons

For Friday’s test, I have begun making flash cards.  How many French cooking terms do you know?

Boulanger – owned the first restaurant, the first dish served was sheep’s feet in white sauce.  It was supposed to be a restorative.

Chefs de partie  – line chefs.  insignificant underlings who do all the work and get none of the credit.

Sous-chef – second in command, the sous-chef is often the aboyeur as well, the expediter.

Chef de cuisine – this is The Chef

Bartolmeo Platina-  author of the first printed cookbook.

Amelia Simmons- author of the first American cookbook American Cookery

Taillevent – early French cookbook author, Taillevent was chef to Charles the Second

Charles Ranhofer – wrote the Epicurean and was head chef at Delmonico’s in London

Gaston Lenotre – master pastry chef, Lenotre is considered the father of modern French pastry.  He also began the first recorded culinary school.

fusion cuisine – the combination of foods, flavors, and techniques from multiple ethnicities and regional cultures.

Boscue, Point, Waters, Tower, & Prudhomme – prominent figures in the Americanization of nouvelle cuisine, also known as New American cuisine

nouvelle cuisine – cuisine focusing on simplicity, fresh ingredients, heathiness and quality

Careme – master of grande or haute cuisine, he favored the elaborate and claimed cooking was a form of architecture.  He made one of the first systems for classifying sauces.

Escoffier – father of cusine classique, Escoffier simplified Careme’s system of sauces into five main groups.  He is credited with the creation of the kitchen brigade.

cuisine classique – a cuisine simpler than grande cuisine and more elaborate than nouvelle cuisine

grand cuisine – the type of food served at the French court, before the revolution.  Typified by its elaborate multiple courses.  Also known as haute cuisine.

Alexis Soyer – one of the first chef’s known for his charitable efforts, Soyer was credited with many kitchen innovations, including ovens with adjustable temperatures and portable stoves.

Ferdinand Point – opened a restaurant called L’pyramid, in France.  Point was a master of grande cuisine, but is considered the father of nouvelle cuisine.  He was one of the first chefs to leave the kitchen to converse with customers at their tables.

Well, I seem to have done fairly well with those cards.  Now I shall attempt to describe the kitchen brigade.

The head of the kitchen brigade is the Chef de Cuisine, or merely Chef.  Directly under the chef is the Sous-chef.  Under the Sous-chef there are the chefs de partie.  At times the patissier is directly under the chef, at other times, he reports to the sous-chef.   Line chefs include the saucier, in charge of soups and sauces, the entremetier, in charge of vegetables, the rotisseur, in charge of roasting and often frying and grilling as well.  The poissonier is in charge of fish.   Wonder why he’s called the poissonier…  The garde-manger controls the pantry, the tournant floats to any station he is needed at.  The commis is the apprentice.  The patissier is the favorite chef of anyone with a sweet tooth.  Also known as the pastry chef, the pastissier can be in charge of all baked goods, or can be head of another department, in which the line chefs are the boulanger: the baker, the gacier: ice cream and custard man, the confiseur: candy and petit fours and the decorateur: showpieces and special cakes.

The dining room brigade is another story.  In charge here is the maitre d’hotel.  Working underneath him, but in his own little world is the chef de vin: the wine chef or sommelier.  The chef de salle is like a host or hostess, in charge of the entire room in smaller operations or, in large restaurants, part of the room.  The chef d’etage is also known as a captain.  He must explain the menu to customers and take their orders.  If any food is prepared tableside, the chef d’etage does this.  The chef de rang is the tablesetter, in charge of food delivery and takes care of any guest needs.  The demi-chef de rang is the busboy.  They’re one group that must prefer the French name.  I know I would rather say ‘I work as a demi-chef de rang’, than, ‘I clear tables and wash dishes’.

We have reached the most important piece of a chef’s equipment.  The knife.  There are ten main parts.

1. The handle – fairly self-explanatory

2. The butt – the end of the handle

3. The heel – the end of the blade, by the handle

4. The point – the end of the blade, away from the handle

5. The tip – like the point, but the term covers a slightly larger area

6. The cutting edge – the sharp bit

7. The spine – opposite the cutting edge

8. The tang – the metal that runs the length of the knife, including to the end of the handle.

9. The rivets – they hold the handle to the tang

10.  Just a second, I’ll remember.  The bolster – after the cutting edge of the knife runs out and the metal curves up to the handle, there is a thicker block of metal.  It is not sharp and it supports the knife.  Thus, it is the bolster.

Now, there are many interesting and fun things you can do with knives.  Most of them have French names.

First, the julienne.  A julienne is a stick 1/8″ x 1/8″ x 2″.  A batonne, the next size up is a stick 1/4″ x 1/4″ x 2″.  This is also referred to as the ‘french fry cut’. Brunoise are cubes 1/8″ x 1/8″ by 1/8″.  If you want a fine Brunoise, make them 1/16″ x 1/16″ x 1/16″.  The dice aren’t French and they are basic.  Small dice are 1/4″ sides, medium dice have 1/2″ sides and large dice 3/4″ sides.   Paysanne are 1/2″ x 1/2″ x 1/8″ and can apparently be square, round, flat or triangular.  The tourner is the most difficult cut.  You are supposed to make a football shape, 2″ long with seven equal sides. It should be 3/4″ to 1″ thick.  Try it and let me know how it goes.  Rondelles is how you would cut your carrots for stew, just lots of rounds.  Diagonals are rondelles cut at a diagonal.  Obliques are cute and fun to cut.  They end up being rather triangular.  The cut is used on carrots and parsnips.  You cut at a 45 degree angle, then at a 45 degree angle opposite the first.  Like making a zig-zag down the carrot.  Lozenges are flat diamonds.

The only other things I have to study for Friday’s test are the point to cool food to in an ice bath before refrigerating it, (70 degrees), and types of menu.  Typically, all the types of menu have French names, excepting the California menu.  A California menu is a menu serving all meals around the clock.  A la carte menus, you can order each food item separately and they are all priced separately.  Semi a la carte, most things are priced and purchased separately, but some are combined.  Table d’hote, your entire meal is planned out and served as a package.  A banquet menu resembles a table d’hote style meal.  This type of menu would be used at gatherings such as a wedding.  None of the guests has a say in which food they want at each course.   As for actual menu types, a static menu serves the same meals without change, a cycle menu works its way through sets of meals, sometimes taking as little as a week, sometimes a few months, sometimes longer.  A market menu changes with the seasons and produce available.  This type of menu can end up chaging every day.  A hybrid menu is a combination of static and cycle or market menus.

I only hope I can remember all of this test day.

Now I have to go over them with my landlady for pratice.

Transfer Post: CulArt102

Also known as Culinary Foundations.  CulArt102 is the start of my day, Monday  through Friday and lasts three hours.   This will last for eight weeks, until the class ends and CulArt111 begins.   This class is a lecture class of sorts.  For the first week, it was a true lecture class, with us sitting in the classroom (which doubles as the student-run deli from 11:00 to 1:00) for three hours, taking notes and reading aloud.  This week, however, we have entered the realm of knife skills.  Excepting today, in which most of our time was consumed by studying for tomorrows unit test, we spend the last hour in the kitchen, chopping vegetables.  The first day, we batonned potatoes, diced onions, and minced garlic.  In case you haven’t read your French lessons, the batonne is also the french fry cut, in dimensions 1/4″ x 1/4″ x 2″.  Diced onions are supposed to be cubes with equal sides, but mincing is defined as a very fine chop of no particular dimensions.  Wednesday we cut carrots in obliques and rondelles, as well as mincing shallots and making tournes out of potatoes.  Next time we have knife skills practice, we are first going to go over spices, in preparation for the spice test at the end of class.

In Foundations class, we have so far studied chapters 1,4,5,6,7, & 9 of the 1400 page book that is our main textbook.  Chapter One – Professionalism, also dealt with culinary history, which figures largely in the coming test.  Pop quiz for my readers.  What event of culinary note occurred 1475?  I will be generous and give the answer at the bottom of the post.  Chapters Two & Three deal with nutrition and sanitation, both of which are entire classes in the program and therefore not included in Foundations class.  Chapter Four deals with types of menu, recipe conversions, and types of service.  Recipe conversions are very fun.  First, you convert your ingredients to ounces.  Then, you add all the ounces for total yield.  To obtain a conversion factor, divide your desired yield by the current yield.  Finally, to get your new recipe, multiply all the ingredients by your conversions factor.  Yes, we do get to use calculators – even though I am capable of doing the math without one.  Chapter Five is kitchen equipment.  I now know what spider, salamander, and bird’s beak mean when used in the kitchen.  A spider is a flat, fine mesh strainer, a salamander is a small overhead broiler, used to brown the top of certain foods and a bird’s beak is a special knife, about the size of a paring knife, used specifically for making tournes.  Just to make things more confusing, in the Culinary Arts kitchen, stove tops are referred to as spider tops.   Chapter Six is mostly vocabulary, with some technique, as it explains the most widespread cuts, their French names, and methods of creating them. These first chapters, along with Culinary History, are the material from which the test questions will be taken.

Chapter Seven is titled flavors and flavorings.  It catalogs all the herbs and spices common and sometimes uncommon to be found in the kitchen or bakery.  It also lists wines, beers, and liquors and describes which foods or baking styles they best compliment.  Condiments, spice mixes and oils are also discussed, while salt has its own page.  Perhaps most interesting to read about is what different cultures over the years have labeled the tastes.  The Chinese have a group of five tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and pungent.  The Indians developed the same group, with the addition of astringent.   These cultures attempt to create meals that balance all of these recognized flavors.   Currently in America, there are five recognized flavors:  sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami.  Umami is a word plagiarized from the Japanese language and means something along the lines of ‘delicious’.  Perhaps the best translation for umami would be ‘savory’.   I am personally fond of Aristotle’s method of classifying tastes.  He ranged his flavors along a scale, beginning with sweet, followed by succulent, pungent, harsh, astringent, and bitter.  The scale ended with salty.  The chapter also discusses the fact that while most foods have stronger flavors the warmer they are, salt can have a stronger taste in cold foods than in cool or warm foods.   Finally, we come to the end of my newfound knowledge, at least that pertainig to Foundations.  When I discuss baking lab, we will talk about chapters 30, 31, 32, & 33.

Homework for Foundations has so far consisted of the questions at the end of each chapter in the book, a synopsis of a movie in which a main theme was food and a current assignment, which is to get into a group of four or five and create a meal together.  My group consists of Trevor the elder, Julie, Tyler, Morgan and myself.  So far, our planned menu is Kaiser rolls, pasta with alfredo sauce and a zucchini dish.  We also plan on a dessert and a meat dish.

Today in class, we watched excerpts from Ratatouille and French Kiss, after we had the technician in to explain why there was no sound and fix the difficulty.

Foundations class is the largest class I am in, as the labs divide us into smaller groups.  Sanitation would be as large, but if the student has a food handlers license issued to them within the past few years, they can skip Sanitation.  For everyone else, it is a pre or co-requisite for all the culinary arts classes.  There are eight guys in the class, the other fourteen of us are girls.  The only double name is Trevor, hence my needing to describe one as Trevor the elder and the other as Trevor the younger.  Trevor the younger is my baking lab partner.   And as I find my thoughts leaving Foundations class and drifting through interesting descriptions of baking lab, I shall leave off until another post, in which I shall deal with CulArt110 – Baking Lab.

Bonus!  As promised, the answer to our trivia/pop quiz.  In 1475, a cookbook was published for the first time.  The author was Bartholomew Platina, from Italy.  The cookbook was called <span style=”text-decoration:underline;”>On Honest Pleasure and Good Health</span>.

Under Duress

I have recently noticed that one of my missing family members is broadcasting to the internet her desire that I write more on this blog.  I suppose it is a sad sign of neglect when I have to look up my username and password because I don’t visit here often enough.  It’s amazing how quickly I can find other ways to while away my free time as well as the times when I should be working on homework or studying for tests.  The entire culinary arts course so far has been an odd concoction of trying to avoid overconfidence and feeling completely lost and bewildered.  If I was asked, I couldn’t even say how much I’ve learned, which could be a good sign or a bad.  Because the entire school experience is so new to me it can be difficult to tell how much of what I think I’ve learned is common to the entire college and how much is just the oddities of this program.   Much of the learning in the school can be done through osmosis, which I enjoy.  Every one learns from things around them, but I think that being taught at home has made me very comfortable with paying attention to those ahead of me in their studies and trying to learn what they’re learning, as well as what I’m supposed to be learning.  Sometimes, it seems that what they’re teaching is so basic that the time spent on it is pointless.  At other times, you wonder why they didn’t give you any instructions before tossing you into the melee of the work spaces.

The class that I will be finishing up with next week has been an odd mixture of learning and boredom.  Baking I is based heavily on a textbook entitled How Baking Works.  The book itself is fascinating, telling me all sorts of things I didn’t know about gluten and polyunsaturated fats.  The lab classes, which we have Tuesdays and Thursdays are very relaxed and enjoyable, even if it just feels like doing over and over the same thing that I’ve done for many years – that is, baking bread.  The experiment class a week ago was very enjoyable, as my lab partner and I got to explode cupcakes in the oven.  Or, more properly, we watched them collapse from lack of structure.   The test was more difficult than I thought it would be, with many good questions – not multiple choice.   Lecture days, though.  Perhaps it’s the nature of a lecture, something I’ve rarely had to use as a learning method.  Even when my siblings and I viewed taped lectures as part of our science studies, sitting around a table eating mac and cheese and discussing the video as it plays is much different from having to pay strict attention from a plastic chair for two hours.  Perhaps is the way the lectures seem to be turning out.  I know I enjoyed most of the lecture time in Culinary Foundations, the class that came just before this one.  Besides the fact that there were more in-class discussions, the information was orderly and thorough.

Maybe what is frustrating me the most right now is that I truly believe that the teacher is educated and knowledgeable about what she is teaching.   She’s good-natured, friendly, and always willing to answer questions.  Whether it’s the answer you wanted is another matter.   One of the advantages I’ve never realized about being taught by my mother is that it’s fairly easy to communicate what I’m asking.  So many times over the course of time I’ve been in classes here, I’ve heard students ask a question about what the teacher just said.  You can literally hear sighs from the people around you as the teacher launches into their reply, which consistently seems to be a near word-for-word repetition of what they just said.  At the end of this, they will ask the student if they understand.  The student will hesitate, the teacher will relaunch and I wonder how anyone learns if this is the common method of communication in public schools.  I can see now that I’ve been spoiled with clear concise answers to my questions.  Well, at least the important ones.  The not so vital ones have taught me many ways to twist people’s words.  Yes, I’m looking at you Daddy.

Back to the point of learning in college, though.  I have admitted that I think I could learn more and retain more information if I spent the two hours of lecture time reading through my textbook.  I think I would also have been more confident during the test last week as I stared at the questions that I knew I’d read the answers to briefly, but that hadn’t been gone over during class time.  Next test, I’m certainly studying harder for.   Not to worry, though, parents over there, who are frowning at the thought that I didn’t study hard enough.  Out of 52 points, I was given 51 1/2.  Normally I wouldn’t post this out here, but I do wish to make a point.  I knew most of the answers, even if only vaguely, or not even from the class or textbook.  There was more than one question, however, that I guessed on, or felt that I left partially unanswered.  I do know that it’s the teacher’s prerogative to grade however they see fit, but I feel that I was given more credit than I deserved.  She did give fair warning before the test, I suppose, that if you could give a logical guess as to the answer, she would give you credit.  I’m still confused, though.  One of the questions that I hesitated over asked which item would give better rise, shortening or margarine.  I took a guess from what I remembered and said shortening.  When I was allowed to look over the test Thursday, I saw that this had been marked incorrect.  In her notes, the teacher said ‘nice guess, but margarine actually gives better rise’.  Alright, so, out of two choices, I picked the wrong one.  Maybe you won’t agree with me, but how do you get 1/2 credit for the question off of that?  I think it’s just because I didn’t leave it blank.  And the fact that I’m willing to guess at things I don’t remember doesn’t seem to me to be a fair reflection of what I’ve learned or how I’m doing in the class.  If my guess is correct, all for the better, and I’ll remember it for the next time.   From this test, though, I think I’ve learned that I’ll learn more in this class if I police myself, rather than expecting the teacher to do it.  So, this weekend, I’m going to re-read that section on malt syrup that I don’t remember enough about.  And I’m going to go over the section where it talks about steam leavening and fats.   Even if all the students in class pass with A’s, I want to feel that I’ve earned what I’m being credited with.

So, yes, I’m learning in college.  I’ll try to share here with you specific things I’ve learned, such as the fact that teachers can be surprised by the fact that you turn in all your assignments on time and properly completed.  I’ll try to remember that everything I’m learning isn’t necessarily the best thing to learn.  And I’m learning how very grateful I am that my mother taught me how to teach myself.

A post for you, Gypsy.

Essay on College Life

Ah!  A new blog already and I’ve barely written anything on my other.  I must be fickle.  Why else, when I at last sit down to write something serious here, do I suddenly have an urge to write fiction?  In all honesty, my real life is interesting enough at this point, that I shouldn’t need to resort to fiction to entertain either myself or my readers.  It’s just that often, it’s hard to remember what in my life no one has any idea of and what they already know.  Once you fall into a routine, life becomes normal again, even though there are a million new little things you could share with people.  Of course, there are all the people I’ve met.   About twenty new classmates, along with the upper semesters and teachers, who are all at least slightly familiar to me at this point.  It’s a new experience for me to be dropping names and have my family and friends have no idea who I’m talking about.   Then there’s the rhythm of the days at school.  Biking in the half light that’s 7:20 a.m. right now in Boise with my new bike lights shining and my nose freezing off.  Arriving and slinging my backpack down as soon as possible, due to the weight of books and uniform.  Saying good morning to a dozen different people as we all try to digest the lecture and take appropriate notes.   Breaking from the first class and speed dressing in my chef’s coat and apron, while twisting my hair into a bun.  Reporting to lab with uniform, recipes, knives, and schedule to become immersed in the work for three hours.   Not realizing how quickly the time is flying by, as I assemble, chop, mix, and wrap.  Cleaning my cutting board and knives.  Helping the sweepers, so that I can mop the kitchen floor and then grabbing my knife case and heading to my locker.  Taking off my coat and being startled at all the new stains.  Deciding if it’s worth carting home and spot washing.  Bundling the knives and any clean uniform pieces into the locker until tomorrow and heading back out into the cool air – pleasant after mopping however many square feet of floor comprise the back kitchen.  The bike ride home, with the odd feeling of a morning having evaporated.  Homework typed out on the computer and printed for the next day.  Recipes converted to the proper size.  Deciding whether to cook dinner or risk reheating something on the stove.  The odd job refereeing or a trip to the grocery store or library.  Trying to fit in a chat with my Mummy, so that I can unload any new happenings or just for the brief feeling of being at home.  Calculating how late to stay up writing, reading or cooking so that at least eight hours of sleep are possible.  Crawling into bed and setting the alarm.  So strange for the first few days of college, but so rhythmic now.  Even the new classes already feel comfortable and this is only my second day. Even with all this, though, Thanksgiving break is something I’m looking forward to more than I ever looked forward to a vacation before.  I enjoy my classes, I’m learning new things, I’m more comfortable with everyone and every procedure every day and yet there’s still a slight feeling of unreality.  Every weekend, I’m waiting to go home and never feeling like I’ve quite gotten there.  I’m enjoying the new freedoms of my own car, setting my own hours and my own meals and schedule.  Underneath everything, though, I miss being completely immersed in the freedom of knowing where I am and who I’m with.  Knowing what the reactions to my opinions and actions will be, being able to stand and discuss what I learned with mother, as she prepares a meal.  Maybe that is why I prefer to write fiction, rather than discuss all the new things in my life.  Fiction, strangely enough, is a constant.  I create the same fiction no matter where I am staying, using the same methods – a keyboard and some melancholy music.  Real life, though.  I’m realizing, perhaps, why my siblings didn’t really discuss school at home.  Maybe they just didn’t think of it, but perhaps they were basking in the feeling and rhythm of home.

Apparently, I’m not in the most uplifted mood this evening.  Don’t be mistaken.  I can bask in the ability to cook and bake and create all day, read about cooks and bakers and creations all afternoon, write about cooking and baking and creating for my only homework.  This is precisely what I love to do.  But I’ll enjoy it more when someone invents a way for me to instantly ship my creations to Taiwan, so that I can cook for the people I most want to give back to and share my new abilities and lessons with.